Concentration Risk. To the extent the investment strategy invests more heavily in particular industries, groups of industries, or sectors of the economy, its performance will be especially sensitive to developments that significantly affect those industries, groups of industries, or sectors of the economy.
Consumer Discretionary Sector Risk. The success of consumer product manufacturers and retailers is tied closely to the performance of domestic and international economies, interest rates, exchange rates, competition, consumer confidence, changes in demographics, and consumer preferences. Companies in the consumer discretionary sector depend heavily on disposable household income and consumer spending and may be strongly affected by social trends and marketing campaigns. These companies may be subject to severe competition, which may have an adverse impact on their profitability.
Health Care Sector Risk. Companies in the healthcare sector are subject to extensive government regulation, and their profitability can be significantly affected by restrictions on government reimbursement for medical expenses, rising costs of medical products and services, pricing pressure (including price discounting), limited product lines, and an increased emphasis on the delivery of healthcare through outpatient services. Companies in the healthcare sector are heavily dependent on obtaining and defending patents, which may be time-consuming and costly, and the expiration of patents may also adversely affect the profitability of these companies. Healthcare companies are also subject to extensive litigation based on product liability and similar claims. In addition, their products can become obsolete due to industry innovation, changes in technologies, or other market developments. Many new products in the healthcare sector require significant research and development and may be subject to regulatory approvals, all of which may be time-consuming and costly with no guarantee that any product will come to market.
Information Technology Sector Risk. Market or economic factors impacting information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technological advances could have a significant effect on the value of the investment strategies’ investments. The value of stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology is particularly vulnerable to rapid changes in technology product cycles, rapid product obsolescence, government regulation, and competition, both domestically and internationally, including competition from foreign competitors with lower production costs. Stocks of information technology companies and companies that rely heavily on technology, especially those of smaller, less-seasoned companies, tend to be more volatile than the overall market. Information technology companies are heavily dependent on patent and intellectual property rights, the loss or impairment of which may adversely affect profitability. Additionally, companies in the technology sector may face dramatic and often unpredictable changes in growth rates and competition for the services of qualified personnel.